Academic Year 2021/2022 - 3° Year
Teaching Staff: Antonino GULINO
Credit Value: 6
Scientific field: CHIM/03 - General and inorganic chemistry
Taught classes: 28 hours
Laboratories: 24 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

The course aims to deepen the knowledge on the chemistry of coordination compounds and to acquire reasoning skills to rationalize the properties of inorganic systems (applying knowledge and understanding). At the end of the course, students should have their own independent judgment: ability to propose appropriate inorganic systems for specific electrical, optical or magnetic properties (making judgments).

Particularly: Specific educational objectives of this course are: Understanding in detail the structure of transition elements, coordination compounds, electronic configurations of transition metals, periodic properties of transition metals, transition metal ion species in aqueous solution, Werner theory, nomenclature of coordination compounds, bond isomerism, magnetic properties and color, geometries and isomers of coordination compounds, bonding in complex ions, energies of 3d orbitals, crystalline field theory, systematics of the elements of first transition line, and to possess some hints of bioinorganics and metallurgy.

Students must also be able to discuss all the proposed activities with a scientific method and appropriate language.

Furthermore, with reference to the so-called Dublin Descriptors,

this course contributes to acquiring the following transversal skills: Knowledge and understanding: Inductive and deductive reasoning skills. Ability to rationalize property-structure correlations; Ability to apply knowledge: Ability to apply the knowledge acquired for the description of the properties of transition metal complexes, rigorously using the scientific method. Ability to interpret electrical, optical and magnetic phenomena; Ability to predict the chemical reactivity of transition metal systems.

Autonomy of judgment: Critical reasoning skills. Ability to identify the most suitable solutions to give particular properties to inorganic materials; Ability to make predictions based on theories and models. Ability to evaluate the need for the use of complex models compared to simple theories in the description of the properties of inorganic systems.

Communication skills: Ability to describe, with properties of language and terminological rigor, a scientific topic, illustrating its reasons and results.

Course Structure


Detailed Course Content

1. Transition Elements and Their Coordination Compounds: Properties of the Transition Elements, The Inner Transition Elements, Coordination Compounds, Bonding Theoretical Basis and Properties of Complexes, Electron Configurations of Transition Metals and their Ions, Ionization Energies for the First-Row Transition Metals, Atomic Radii of the 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Series, Trends in the Properties of Transition Metals, Oxidation States and Species for Transition Metal ions in Aqueous Solution.

2. Coordination Compounds: Ligands directly bonded to the metal or counter ions for ionic salts, Blomstrand’s chain theory and Werner’s coordination theory, Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds, Names of Common Ligands, Linkage Isomerism, Ligands with Extra Teeth, Polydentate Ligands, Complex Ion Formation, Aqueous oxoanions of transition elements, Metallic Behaviour of Transition Metals, Standard Electrode Potentials of first row transition elements, Colour and Magnetic Behaviour, Hints of Lanthanides and Actinides, Structures of Complex Ions, Coordination Numbers, Geometries, and Ligands, Chelates.

3. Isomers of Coordination Compounds: Geometric Isomerism, Octahedral Complexes: fac and mer, Chirality, Optical Isomers and Optical Activity in octahedral complex ions, Berry Pseudorotation, Constitutional Isomers of Coordination Compounds.

4. Bonding in Complex Ions: Interaction Between a Metal Ion and a Ligand Viewed as a Lewis Acid-Base Reaction, The Hybrid Orbitals Required for Octahedral, Tetrahedral, Square Planar, and Linear Complex Ions, Energies of the 3d Orbitals for a Metal Ion in an Octahedral Complex, Electron Arrangements in the Split 3d Orbitals, Magnetic Properties, Absorbtion of Visible Light by the Complex Ion, Colours of Transition Metal Complexes, Crystal Field Theory, Spectrochemical Series.

5. Highlights of Selected Transition Metals. Chemistry of the elements of the first transition series: general characteristics; preparation, properties and use of the elements. Common compounds: synthesis and reactivity. Organometallic complexes of industrial use. Metal alkyls, alkylidenes, carbenes, carbonyl compounds, cyclopentadienyl compounds. Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu.

6. First-Row Transition Metals and Their Biological Significance: Transition metal Trace Elements in Humans, The tetrahedral Zn2+ complex in carbonic anhydrase, Biological Importance of Iron, The Heme Complex, Myoglobin, Hemoglobin and the octahedral complex in heme.

7. Metallurgy: The Blast Furnace.

Textbook Information

2) N. N. GREENWOOD, A. EARNSMAW, Chimica degli Elementi - Piccin