# FISICA II E LABORATORIO

**Academic Year 2022/2023**- Teacher:

**Francesca RIZZO**

## Expected Learning Outcomes

The course, based on theoretical and experimental activities, aims at providing knowledges on electrical, magnetic and optical phenomena. The study of phenomena of classical physics and the execution of simple experiments will allow students to acquire the ability to analyze experimental data and to produce a scientific report. Their communication skills will thus be developed both oral and in written form.

With reference to the Dublin Descriptors, this course contributes to acquiring the following soft skills:

__Knowledge
and understanding abilities:__

• Inductive and deductive reasoning skills.

• Ability to schematize a natural phenomenon in terms of scalar and vector physical quantities.

• Ability to set up a problem using appropriate relationships between physical quantities (such as algebraic, integral or differential) and to solve it with analytical or numerical methods.

• Ability to assemble simple experimental setups, and to use scientific instrumentation for optical and electromagnetic measurements.

• Ability to perform statistical data analysis

__Applying knowledge and understanding
abilities__

• Ability to apply the knowledge acquired for the description of physical phenomena using rigorously the scientific method.

• Ability to plan simple experiments and carry out the analysis of the experimental data obtained in all areas of interest in physics, including those with technological implications.

__Ability
of making judgements:__

• Critical reasoning skills.

• Ability to identify the most appropriate methods to critically analyze, interpret and process the experimental data.

• Ability to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements, the linearity of the instrument responses, the sensitivity and selectivity of the used techniques.

__Communication
skills:__

• Ability to present orally, with properties of language and terminological rigor, a scientific argument, explaining the motivations and the results.

__Learning
skills:__

• Ability to know how to expand one's knowledge through the reading of scientific texts.

## Course Structure

The course is organized for about 13 weeks. During the first 3 weeks (in each week there are 3 + 3 + 2 hours of lectures for a total of 8 hours per week) are devoted to explain Physics experiments. Afterwards the frontal lectures (5 hours per week) are alternated with practical activity in the Physics laboratory (3 hours per week).

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the Syllabus.

## Required Prerequisites

Essential knowledge: Classical mechanics. Conservation laws.

## Attendance of Lessons

## Detailed Course Content

The course lasts about 13 weeks. The first 3 weeks are devoted to arguments connected to the Physics Laboratory, in particular:

a) Error theory: Uncertainty of a measurement and precision. Random errors and
systematic errors. Error propagation
in indirect measurements. Statistical analysis of a set of measures: mean value
and standard deviation. Frequency
histograms. Gaussian distribution. Linear best-fit and its uncertainty. (1^{st}
Week)

b)
Explanation of the experiments to be performed in the Laboratory for the
measurement of physical quantities related to classical mechanics,
electromagnetism and geometric and physical optics, in detail: (2nd and 3^{rd}
Week)

1. Measurement of the acceleration of gravity using the simple pendulum.

2. Measurement of the elastic constant of a spring.

3. Measurement of resistances using the Wheatstone bridge.

4. Measurement of the optical rotatory power and Malus law.

5. Measurement of resistances with the Ammeter-Voltmeter method.

6. Measurement of high resistances through the discharge of a capacitor.

7. Measurement of the focal distance of a converging lens with the Bessel method.

8. Measurement of an inductance through RLC circuit in alternating current.

During the following 10 weeks, the Physics 2 program is carried out for each week (frontal lessons for 5 hours per week) and 3 hours are devoted to practical exercises at the Physics Didactic Laboratory. Topics covered:

__The
electrostatic field: __Electric
charge - Coulomb law - Electrostatic field - Lines of force - Calculation of
the electrostatic field__ __for discrete charge distributions - Electric
dipole - Flux of the electrostatic field - Gauss theorem (1st Maxwell
equation) - Electric conductors - Charge and electrostatic field in a conductor
– Electrification by induction and by contact. (4^{th} Week)

__The
electrostatic potential__: Electrostatic potential and potential difference – Electrostatic Potential
of a system of charges – Electrostatic potential energy - Equipotential surfaces
- Calculation of the electrostatic potential for various charge distributions.
(5^{th} Week)

__Electrical capacity and electrostatic energy__: Electrical capacity - Capacitors and their capacities - Capacitors in
series and in parallel - Electrostatic energy in a capacitor - Dielectrics. (6^{th}
Week)

__Electric
current in solid materials: __Motion of charges and electric current - Classical model of conduction -
Ohm law - Electrical resistance__ __- Resistivity and its dependence on
temperature - Energy in electrical circuits - Joule effect -Electromotive force
generators - Internal resistance - Conductors, insulators and semiconductors -
Resistors in series and in parallel - RC circuit (discharge phase). (7^{th}
week)

__The
magnetic field: __Definition
of the magnetic field - Lorentz force – 2^{nd} Laplace law - Motion of
a charge in a__ __magnetic field - The mass spectrometer - Magnetic
moment of a magnet and of an electrical circuit - Ampère Equivalence - Ammeter
- Voltmeter. (8^{th} week)

__Sources
of the magnetic field: __Biot-Savart law - Magnetic field generated by currents (1^{st}
Laplace law) – Application to the case of
rectilinear and circular circuit - Definition of Ampère and
Coulomb unit measurements - Ampère theorem (4^{th} Maxwell's equation)
and its application to the solenoid - Magnetic field of a magnetized bar - Flux
of the magnetic field (2^{nd} Maxwell equation). (9^{th}
week)

__Electromagnetic
induction: __Faraday-Neumann
law (3^{rd} Maxwell's equation) - Lenz law - Electromotive force in a moving circuit - Application examples of
the laws of electromagnetic induction: alternator and dynamo - Inductance,
self-inductance and mutual inductance - Inductance of a solenoid - RL circuits
- Magnetic energy. (10^{th} week)

__Circuits
in alternating current: __Alternating electromotive force generators - Alternating current in a
resistor - Alternating current in a capacitor - Alternating current in
an inductor - RC, RL and RCL circuits in series - Capacitive reactance, inductive
reactance - Impedance - RCL circuit in
resonance condition - Power. (11^{th}week +3 hours 12^{th}
week)

__Electromagnetic
radiation and light: __Electromagnetic
radiation - Wave-particle dualism - The speed of light - Polarized light – Optical
Rotatory power - The three laws on reflection and refraction - Refractive
index. (2 hours 12^{th} week)

__Geometric
optics: __Object
space and image space - Formation of images by refraction - Converging and
diverging lenses –Thin lens formula. (3 hours 13^{th} week)

__Physical
optics: __Interference
- Interference from a system of two slits - Diffraction from a single slit -
Resolution -__(__2 hours 13^{th} week)

## Textbook Information

- Mazzoldi P., Nigro M.,Voci C.: "Elementi di Fisica - Elettromagnetismo" EdiSES, Napoli.
- Halliday-Resnick: Fondamenti di Fisica-Elettromagnetismo e Ottica, Editrice Ambrosiana
- A. Foti, C.Giannino: Elementi di analisi dei dati sperimentali (Ed. Liguori, Napoli)
- A. Insolia, F. Riggi: Laboratorio di Fisica (Ed. CULC, Catania)

## Course Planning

Subjects | Text References | |
---|---|---|

1 | 1. *Electrostatic field | Testo 1: cap. 1 Testo 1: cap. 3 |

2 | 2. *Electrostatic potential | Testo 1: cap. 2 |

3 | 3. *Electrical capacitor and electrostatic energy | Testo 1: cap. 4 |

4 | 4. *Electric current in solid materials | Testo 1: cap. 5 |

5 | 5. *Magnetic field | Testo 1: cap. 6 |

6 | 6. *Magnetic field source | Testo 1: cap. 7 |

7 | 7. *Electromagnetic induction | Testo 1: cap. 8 |

8 | 9. *Circuit in Direct Current | Testo 1: cap. 9 |

9 | 10. *Electromagnetic radiations and light | Testo 2: cap. 33 |

10 | 11. *Geometric optics | Testo 2: cap.34 |

11 | 13. *Error theory | Testo 3 |

12 | *Guidelines for Experiments | Testo 4 |

## Learning Assessment

### Learning Assessment Procedures

Students will have to take a pre-selective written test (lasting 1 hour) consisting in the solution of 4 simple exercises related to topics covered in the part of the course concerning Physics 2.

Then they will perform a practical laboratory test (experiment), chosen by lot among the 8 performed during the course; the students will have 2 hours to take data to be used for the preparation of a report to be presented, as a rule, after 2 days. Finally, the students who have passed the pre-selective written test, will perform the oral exam which will focus on both Physics 2 and Laboratory topics, with particular regard to the analysis of data collected during the practical test.

The exams can also be carried out on-line, should the conditions require it.

It is possible to consult the exams calendar on the website of the L27-Industrial Chemistry

### Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

The following list is not exhaustive, just a few examples are reported:

Electric Charge, Coulomb's Law, Electric Field, Electric Potential, Gauss Law, Conductors, Capacitors, Dielectrics, Electric Current in, Electric Resistance, Electric Power, DC Circuits, Resistors in Circuits, Capacitors in Circuits.

Magnetic materials, Electromagnetism, Ampère Law, Electromagnetic Force, Faraday-Neumann-Lenz Law, Inductance.

The 4 Maxwell laws. The 2 Laplace laws.

Alternating Current, RC Circuits, RL Circuits, RLC Circuits

The Nature of Light: Diffraction & Interference.

Geometric Optics: Reflection, Refraction, Spherical Lenses