# ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY I AND LABORATORY M - Z

**Academic Year 2019/2020**- 2° Year

**Teaching Staff**

- MODULO 1:
**Carmelo SGARLATA** - MODULO 2:
**Giuseppa Ida GRASSO**

**Credit Value:**12

**Scientific field:**CHIM/01 - Analytical chemistry

**Taught classes:**42 hours

**Laboratories:**72 hours

**Term / Semester:**1°

## Learning Objectives

**MODULO 1**The course aims to provide students with fundamental concepts on ionic equilibria in solution as well as with theoretical and practical tools for quantitative analysis in laboratory (module 2). The purpose of the course is to give a global vision of the analytical process, from the selection of the method of analysis to data processing and critical discussion of the results through the application of the principles which rule chemical equilibria in solution and the use of the classical analytical methods.

**MODULO 2**The course aims to provide students with fundamental tools for quantitative analysis based on ionic equilibria in solution through the employment of the most significant gravimetric and volumetric determinations in analytical chemistry. The purpose of the course is to give a global vision of the analytical process from the selection of the method of analysis to data processing and critical discussion of the results.

## Course Structure

**MODULO 1**Class lectures and exercises

**MODULO 2**Class lectures, exercises and laboratory activities.

## Detailed Course Content

**MODULO 1**Basic concepts on analytical chemistry. Gibbs free energy and chemical equilibria. Equilibrium constants. Factors affecting the equilibrium constant. Ionic strength. Activity and activity coefficients. Debye-Huckel theory. Temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.

Acid-base equilibria. The ionic product of water. pH. Strength of acids and bases. Strong acids and bases: pH calculation. Rigorous equations and approximation criterion. Mass and charge balance equations, proton condition. Weak acids and bases: pH calculation. Buffer solutions: pH calculation and buffer capacity. Polyprotic acids. Distribution diagrams. Amphoteric species. Acid mixtures. Acid-base titration curves.

Solubility equilibria. Solubility product. Dependence on temperature, solvent and ionic strength. Effect of the common-ion, pH and complex formation on the solubility. Precipitation titrations.

Complex formation equilibria. Degree of formation. Role of the pH on the complex formation equilibria. Mono and polydentate ligands. EDTA, acid-base and complexing properties. Conditional formation constant, minimum pH for effective titrations. Complexometric titrations.

**MODULO 2**Course introduction. Elements of statistics. Errors in analytical chemistry. Presentation of data and results. Position and dispersion index. Most common statistical tests.

Analytical measurement instrumentations, precision, accuracy, sensitivity. Laboratory apparatuses: analytical balance and calibrated glassware.

Gravimetric analysis. Analysis by precipitation. Formation of precipitates. Gravimetric determination of Ni

^{2+}as the bis-dimethylglioximate complex.Volumetric analysis. General principles of titrations. Preparation of standard solutions. Primary standards. Standardization procedures. Acid-base titrations. Indicators. Acidimetric and alkalimetric determination of sodium tetraborate.

Precipitation titrations. Determination of chloride by Mohr, Fajans and Volhard methods. Carbonate/chloride separation.

Complexometric titrations. EDTA titrations. Metallochromic indicators. Determination of Cu

^{2+}.Redox titrations. Methods based on the use of permanganate. Determination of Fe

^{2+}. Iodometry. Determination of Cu^{2+}.

## Textbook Information

**MODULO 1**1. H. Freiser, Q. Fernando, “Gli Equilibri Ionici nella Chimica Analitica", Piccin, Padova

2. D. C. Harris, “Chimica Analitica Quantitativa”, terza ed., Zanichelli, Bologna

3. I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, E. J. Meehan, S. Bruckenstein, “Analisi Chimica Quantitativa”, Piccin, Padova

4. F. J. Holler, S. R. Crouch, “Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica”, terza ed., Edises, Napoli

**MODULO 2**1. I. M. Kolthoff, E. B. Sandell, E. J. Meehan, S. Bruckenstein, “Analisi Chimica Quantitativa”, Piccin, Padova

2. D. C. Harris, “Chimica Analitica Quantitativa”, terza ed., Zanichelli, Bologna

3. F. J. Holler, S. R. Crouch, “Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica”, terza ed., Edises, Napoli

4. E. De Simoni, "Chimica Analitica", CUL, Bologna

5. M. Garetto, "Statistica, Lezioni ed Esercizi", Università di Torino