Academic Year 2021/2022 - 2° Year
Teaching Staff Credit Value: 12
Scientific field: CHIM/06 - Organic chemistry
Taught classes: 35 hours
Exercise: 12 hours
Laboratories: 72 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

  • MODULO 1

    The course aims to provide students with a more in-depth training in Organic Chemistry from the first basic course, particularly with regard to nomenclature, chemical properties and reactivity of multifunctional compounds; the main classes of organic compounds of biological significance: carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids; the major heterocyclic systems. Students will gain further knowledge on advanced organic synthesis reactions, learning to develop simple synthetic sequences of polyfunctional organic compounds and to apply the principles of modern synthetic strategies for disconnection approaches, formation of carbon-carbon bonds, deprotection protection of functional groups.

    Furthermore, in reference to the so-called Dublin Descriptors, this course helps to acquire the following skills:

    D1 - Knowledge and understanding: The students will have to demonstrate their mastery of basic knowledge about the organic chemistry. In particular, the students must show their ability to rationalize property-structure correlations of organic molecules

    D2 - Ability to apply knowledge: The students will have to show knowledge and understanding of organic reactions required to produce synthetic processes of relatively complex molecules.

    D3 - Autonomy of judgment: The students will have to apply their knowledge, understanding and skills. Particularly, the students must show his ability to critical reasoning and their ability to identify the most appropriate chemical reactions aimed to the synthesis of organic molecules.

    D4 - Communication skills: The students must be able to communicate clearly with a correct property of language and terminological rigor their conclusions.

    D5- Learning skills: The students will have to develop learning skills that will enable them to continue studying in a self-directed or autonomous way.

  • Laboratory of Organic Chemistry 2

    Acquire experience on the methodologies and techniques of organic synthesis through the preparation of some products and their structural determination.

    Regarding the Dublin Descriptors, this course aims to transfer the following transversal competences to the student:
    Knowledge and understanding:
     Inductive and deductive reasoning skills;
     Ability to rationalize and predict the reactivity of organic molecules;
     Ability to distinguish the difference between laboratory instruments;
     Ability to predict the glassware necessary for a specific reaction.

    Ability to apply knowledge:
     Ability to design a synthetic path suitable for obtaining a precise organic molecule;
     Ability to assembly the glassware for a specific reaction;
     Ability to identify the conditions for optimal reactions for a synthetic strategy.

    Autonomy of judgment:
     Critical reasoning skills;
     Self-assessment of learning through interactions in the classroom with colleagues and with the teacher.

    Communication skills:
     Ability to describe in oral and written form, with properties of language and terminological rigor, one of the topics covered, making use of both power point presentations and the blackboard.

Course Structure

  • MODULO 1

    The teaching will take place through the discussion of the various topics reported in the program and will include days dedicated to the clarification of doubts and the simulation of the oral exam.Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus. Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

  • Laboratory of Organic Chemistry 2

    Lessons in classroom and in Laboratory

    Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

    Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

Detailed Course Content

  • MODULO 1

    Enols, Enolates, enamines

    Keto-enol tautomerism –Enolization catalysed by acids and bases – Enols stability - Acidity of a-hydrogens of carbonyl compounds – Enolate ions – Halogenation in a of carbonyl and carboxylic compounds –Haloform reaction –Alkylation of acarbons – Alkylation and acylation of acarbons by using enamines – The Aldol condensation: synthesis of b-hydroxyaldehydes – Dehydratation of aldols – Cross-condensation of aldols – The Claisen condensation: synthesis of b-ketoesters – The Claisen ester condensation compared to the aldol condensation – Problems with acylation at carbon – Intramolecular Claisen ester and aldol condensations –Robinson annelation– b-ketoacids decarboxylation –Malonic synthesis –Acetoacetic synthesis

    a,b- unsatured carbonyl compounds

    Electron Delocalization and Resonance - Conjugation effects - Conjugate additions reactions – b-carbon alkylation – Michael reaction – Conjugate addition or direct addition to the carbonyl group - “hard” e “soft” nucleophiles - Conjugate addition of ammonia and amines– Conjugate addition of alcohols and thiols – Reactions with organometallic reagents – The Effect of the Cu(I) salts – Conjugate addition of enolates– Conjugate addition followed by cyclization in the ring synthesis

    Sulfur compounds

    Thiols : structure, nomenclature, physical properties – Acidity - Preparation reactions – oxydation reactions– Sulfides – Disulfides - Solfinic and Solfonic acids


    Aromatic heterocycles
    Heteroaromaticity – Five- and six membered aromatic heterocyclic rings - Furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine. Synthesis starting from 1,3 and 1,4-dicarbonylic compounds – Heteroaromatic rings with two o more heteroatoms- Benzo-fused heterocycles- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions, Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions, oxidations, reductions –Pyridine N-oxyde.



    Classification of Carbohydrates - The D and L Notation - Configurations of Aldoses and Ketoses - Redox Reactions of Monosaccharides – Oxidation - Chain Elongation: the Kiliani–Fischer Synthesis -

    Chain Shortening: the Wohl and Ruff Degradation- Cyclic Structure of Monosaccharides: Hemiacetal Formation - Acylation and Alkylation of Monosaccharides -Formation of Glycosides - The Anomeric Effect - Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars – Mutarotation – Disaccharides - Polysaccharides

    Solar energy, photosynthesis and the flow to Living Organisms- Some Eco Friendly Products Derived from cellulose fermentation



    Fatty Acids- Fats and Oils – Waxes – Triglycerides – Saponification –Micelles - detergent properties- Soaps and detergents - Prostaglandins – Steroids – Terpenes – Phospholipids –Phospholipid bilayers assembly- Liposomes - Cell membrane – Lecithins –Sphingolipids – Fat soluble vitamins

  • Laboratory of Organic Chemistry 2

    Intrumental techniques: NMR, UV-Vis, GC, GC-MS and HPLC

    Reactions of

    • Aromatic nucleophilic substitution: synthesis of p-nitro aniline

    • Multi-step synthesis: benzocaine

    • Synthesis of methyl salycilate

Textbook Information

  • MODULO 1

    Required Texts

    1) W.H.Brown, B.L.Iverson, E.V.Anslyn, C.S.Foote, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Edises
    3) P.Y.Bruice, CHIMICA ORGANICA, Edises
    4) J. Claiden, N. Greeves, S. Warren, ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Oxford University Press 2012

  • Laboratory of Organic Chemistry 2

    1. D.L. Pavia, G.M. Lampman, G.S. Kritz, Introduction to Organic Laboratory, Saunder College Pubblishing.

    2. R.M. Silverstein, F.X. Webster, Identificazione Spettroscopica di Composti Organici, Ambrosiana.