# CHIMICA GENERALE ED INORGANICA I E LABORATORIO M - Z

**Academic Year 2020/2021**- 1° Year

**Teaching Staff**

- Module 1:
**Maria Elena FRAGALA'** - MODULO 2:
**Maria Elena FRAGALA'**

**Credit Value:**12

**Scientific field:**CHIM/03 - General and inorganic chemistry

**Taught classes:**56 hours

**Exercise:**24 hours

**Laboratories:**24 hours

**Term / Semester:**1°

## Learning Objectives

**Module 1****Course’s main objective is to provide fundamental principles and laws of Chemistry, required for all the other propedeutical chemical courses. Students will familiarize with chemical principles, symbol and notations. Nature of atoms and molecules in predicting the properties and behaviour of more complex systems will be considered. The course provides a firm foundation in applications of main chemical and scientific theories. Students will use rudimentary mathematical equation to appreciate quantitative nature of atomic and chemical interactions and to solve basic problems relating to chemical reactions . Basic principles of atomic theory, chemical bond theory and molecular geometries will be provided.****MODULO 2**The General Chemistry course (Module 2) provides the student with the main calculation methods to solve stoichiometry problems.

Expected learning outcomes

- Knowledge of theoretical principles and comprehension of the basic structure of atoms and molecules, chemical reactions and thermodynamics and kinetics bases of reactions.

- Understanding and solving stoichiometry problems.The objective of the practical exercises is to make student familiar with the calculation tool and to develop ability to translate the chemical problem in a number of useful mathematical operations. Moreover, the course provides students with the basic notions of safety in the laboratory and will allow them to write and balance chemical reactions related to the General and Inorganic Chemistry course. In the light of the information obtained in the first module of this course, students will be able to rationalize the chemical processes in gas phase or in aqueous solution experimentally carried out.

## Course Structure

**Module 1**Lectures, exercises in the classroom and experiments on chemical reactions in the laboratory.

*Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.**Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.***MODULO 2**In room lectures and lab experiences.

*Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.**Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.*

## Detailed Course Content

**Module 1**The atom.

The atomic theory; atomic composition; atomic and mass numbers. Isotopes and atomic weight. Bohr's atomic theory; energy quantization. Atomic structure and quantum theories; orbitals, quantum numbers and spin. Orbitals in polyelectronic atoms, electronic configurations of elements. Periodic Table and relation with electronic configuration. Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic and ionic radii.

Compounds: Minimum and molecular formula. Valence and oxidation degrees. Nomenclature. Lewis structures of molecule and polyatomic ions. Molecular geometry. Resonance, isomers, PM and PF. The mole and NA. Molar mass and numbers of moles.

Chemical bond: General concepts. Ionic bond: lattice energy, stoichiometry and geometry of ionic compounds. Covalent bonds: electronegativity and bond polarity; bond energy and distance. Valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory. Ibridization. Metallic bond. Intermolecular forces: Van der Waals, London and hydrogen bond.

Solid, liquid and gaseous states: general properties. Gas theoretic model. Equation of state for gases. Gas mixtures: partial pressure. Changes of state and phase diagrams.

Solutions: General properties of solutions. Concentration. Solubility. Solutions of electrolytes. Ideal diluted or concentrated solutions. Changes of state in liquid solutions. Raoult and Henry laws. Osmosis. Colligative properties and determination of molecular weight.

Chemical reactions and equations; mass conservation law. Equation balancing. Redox reactions and their balancing. Reactions in solution and ionic equations; Mass relation in the reactions; equivalent weight.

Thermodynamics: Generalities of thermodynamics; reactions and heat (internal energy, enthalpy), spontaneous reactions (entropy, free energy), study of the free energy variation during a chemical reaction.

Kinetic: Rate of reaction, kinetic equation. Reaction mechanism. Activated complex and activation energy. Catalysis.

Chemical equilibrium: Complete and uncompleted reactions. The equilibrium constants: Kc and Kp. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Le Chatelier's principle. Effects of P,V,T, concentrations of reagents and products on the position of the equilibria. Simultaneous equilibria. Stoichiometric calculations on equilibria.

**MODULO 2**Exercises will regard Stoichiometry and balancing reactions, Gas Laws, Thermochemistry, Solutions (concentration, colligative properties), Kinetics (reaction order, Arrhenius Law),

Equilibrium.

## Textbook Information

**Module 1**R.H. Petrucci, W.S.Harwood, F.G. Herring, CHIMICA GENERALE (Principi e moderne applicazioni), Piccin

Kotz-Treichel-Townsend (ed edizioni precedenti) - Chimica- EdiSeS

M. Speranza-Chimica Generale ed Inorganica-Edi-Ermes

P. W Atkins, J. Loretta - Chimica Generale - Zanichelli

M Schiavello, L. Palmisano - Fondamenti di Chimica - EdiSes

N. J. Tro - Chimica Un approccio molecolare - Zanichelli

4. P. Silvestroni- Fondamenti di Chimica- CEA

**MODULO 2**- P. Michelin Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio, STECHIOMETRIA, Piccin